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Graduate Aptitude Test for Engineering (GATE)

GATE 2022 Online Form

GATE 2022 Online Form. IIT Bombay invites online application forms for the GATE 2022 entrance exam. GATE exam is a national-level exam conducted by IISc and 7 IITs together.  GATE-qualified candidates can get a fellowship on taking admission in master/doctoral programs. All eligible candidates can apply here online.


 GATE Important Dates


GATE 2022 Online form starts 30/08/2022
GATE last date to apply 2022, without late fee 30/09/2022
Last date for apply with late fee 07/10/2022
Last date for changing Exam Centre 07/10/2022
GATE exam date 2022 04-05,11-12 February 2023
GATE  Admit Card Available 03/01/2023
GATE Result Available Date  16/03/2023


GATE Eligibility 

The candidate should meet any one of the following GATE exam eligibility criteria :

GATE  Qualification in Education Required for appearing at the entrance

B.E. / B.Tech. / B.Pharm. degree completed by 2023

  • Bachelor’s degree in Engineering / Technology (4 years after 10+2 or 3 years after B.Sc. / Diploma in Engineering / Technology)

B. Arch.

Bachelor’s degree of Architecture (5- year course) / Naval Architecture (4- year course) / Planning (4- year course)

B.Sc. (Research) / B.S. completed by 2022

Bachelor’s degree in Science (Post-Diploma/4 years after 10+2).

Pharm. D. (after 10+2)

6 years degree program, consisting of internship or residency training, during third year onwards.


Degree holders of M.B.B.S. and those who are in the 5th/6th/7th semester or higher semester of such programme.

M. Sc. / M.A. / MCA or equivalent

Master’s degree in any branch of Arts/Science/Mathematics/Statistics/ Computer Applications or equivalent

GATE zoology eligibility

Masters degree in zoology/life sciences/microbiology/biochemistry/neuroscience/physiology etc. from a recognized University/institute in India.

Int. M.E./ M.Tech. (Post-B.Sc.)

Post-B.Sc Integrated Master’s degree programs in Engineering/ Technology (4-year program)

Int. M.E./ M.Tech. or Dual Degree (after Diploma or 10+2)

Integrated Master’s degree program or Dual Degree program in Engineering/Technology (5-year program)

B.Sc. / B.A. / B.Com.

Bachelor degree in any branch of Science / Arts / Commerce (3 years program)

Int. M.Sc. / Int. B.S. / M.S.

Integrated M.Sc. or 5-year integrated B.S.-M.S. program

Professional Society Examinations (equivalent to B.E. / B.Tech. / B.Arch.)

B.E./B.Tech./B.Arch. equivalent examinations of Professional Societies, recognized by MoE/UPSC/AICTE (e.g. AMIE by Institution of Engineers-India, AMICE by the Institute of Civil Engineers-India and so on)


GATE Age Limit-

  • Minimum   :18 Years
  • Maximum  : Not applicable


GATE 2022 Online Form GATE fees 

Without Late fee till 30/09/2022

  • GEN/OBC                                             :  1700/-
  • SC/ST/PH                                            :   850/-
  • All category Female                            :   850/

With late fee till 07/10/2022

  • GEN/OBC                                           :  2200/-
  • SC/ST/PH                                          :   1350/-    
  • All category Female                          :  1350/
  • Pay exam fee through Debit Card /Credit Card /Net Banking or Bank challan etc.


About GATE 2022

GATE full form is “Graduate Aptitude Test in Engineering” .GATE  meaning in hindi ” is इंजीनियरिंग मे स्नातक योग्यता परीक्षण”.Basically GATE meaning is a national examination on the comprehensive understanding of the candidates in various undergraduate subjects in Engineering / Technology / Architecture and post-graduate level subjects in Arts, Commerce and Science. GATE iit Bombay 2021 year conducts this exam.

 GATE Uses of Score Card or GATE benefits

On the basis of GATE score individual who gets GATE JRF can get fellowship/financial assistance for masters or doctoral progamme. For being eligible for fellowship a student must get admission in the masters or doctoral programme in central government university or institute.

For M. Tech student GATE fellowship is Rs. 12400/month upto  a period of 2 years from the date of admission in any university or institution under central government. For Ph.D student the fellowship is provided for a maximum period of 5 years. The amount of fellowship for Ph.D students is Rs.31000 per month+ House Rent Allowance(24% per month).

GATE score validity card will remain valid for THREE years from the date of announcement of results.

GATE updates 2022 -The list of Institutes taking admission based on GATE scores are :

  1. Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi(GATE IIT Delhi)
  2. Indian Institute of Technology, Chennai
  3. Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur
  4. Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur
  5. Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee
  6. Indian Institute of Technology, Mumbai
  7. Indian Institute of Technology, Guwahati
  8. Indian Institute of Information Technology, Bangalore
  9. Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Bangalore Campus
  10. Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore
  11. Physical Research Laboratory, Ahmedabad
  12. Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai
  13. Harish-Chandra Research Institute, Allahabad
  14. Central Power Research Institute
  15. Institute for Plasma Research
  16. Centre for Artificial Intelligence and Robotics (CAIR)
  17. Centre for Mathematical Modelling and Computer Simulation
  18. Indian Space Research Organization
  19. Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research
  20. National Institute of Mental Health and Neuro Sciences
  21. Raman Research Institute
  22. Central Inland Capture Fisheries Research Institute
  23. Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi
  24. Regional Research Laboratory Indian Statistical Institute
  25. Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics
  26. The Institute of Mathematical Science
  27. Forest Research Institute
  28. Indian School of Mines, Jharkhand

There are public sector undertakings where also based on the GATE score an individual can get employment . Some of these institutions are like

Indian Oil Corporation Limited (IOCL), National Thermal Power Corporation (NTPC), Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited (BHEL), Gas Authority of India Limited (GAIL), Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL), Nuclear Power Corporation of India Limited (NPCIL), Oil and Natural Gas Corporation (ONGC) and Power Grid Corporation of India (PGCI). DRDO ,HPCL, BARC, BEML, IOCL, WBSEDCL,NCL,BPCL,NHPC,COAL INDIA, BSNL, EDCIL, NALCO, DMRC, BBNL, AAI, NHAI, MDL,NFL,RCFL,BSPCL

In central government also there is direct recruitment to Group A level posts like-Senior Field Officer (Tele), Senior Research Officer (Crypto), and Senior Research Officer (S&T) in Cabinet Secretariat, Government of India, based on the GATE score.


Examination for GATE is conducted in 27 subjects from engineering/science/arts/social sciences. These subjects also include GATE applied courses.

GATE Subjects              – Subject Code

  1. Aerospace Engineering -AE
  2. Instrumentation Engineering-IN
  3. Agricultural Engineering-AG
  4. Mathematics-MA
  5. Architecture and Planning-AR
  6. Mechanical Engineering-ME
  7. Bio-medical Engineering-BM
  8. Mining Engineering-MN
  9. Biotechnology-BT
  10. Metallurgical Engineering-MT
  11. Civil Engineering-CE
  12. Petroleum Engineering-PE
  13. Chemical Engineering-CH
  14. Physics-PH
  15. Computer Science and Information
  16. Technology-CS
  17. Production and Industrial
  18. Engineering-PI
  19. Chemistry-CY
  20. Statistics-ST
  21. Electronics and Communication
  22. Engineering-EC
  23. Textile Engineering and
  24. Fibre Science-TF
  25. Electrical Engineering-EE
  26. Engineering Sciences-XE
  27. Environmental Science &
  28. Engineering-ES
  29. Humanities & Social Sciences-XH
  30. Ecology and Evolution-EY
  31. Life Sciences-XL
  32. Geology and Geophysics-GG

GATE Exam Pattern :

Name of Paper Maximum Questions Maximum Marks
General Aptitude 10 15
Subject opted 55 85
Total 65 100

GATE question paper pattern

  • Multiple Choice Questions (MCQ)
  • Remaining types – (i) Multiple Select Questions (MSQ) and/or (ii) Numerical Answer Type (NAT) Questions.
  • All of the questions will be of 1 mark and 2 marks.
  • The total duration of the examination is of 3 hours ie. 180 minutes.
  • ONE or TWO subject papers are allowed.
  • GATE Negative Marking- In 1 mark questions there will be a 1/3 mark deducted for each wrong answer and in 2 mark questions there will be 2/3 mark will be deducted for each wrong answer.


Dates of examination: 4th-5th, 11th-12th February 2023

GATE Preparation Books

GATE books for mechanical engineering,GATE books for cse,GATE books for ece,GATE  preparation books for general aptitude,GATE books for biotechnology,GATE books for Life Sciences,GATE books for civil engineering,GATE topic wise questions,GATE study material .







GATE mark distribution Scheme

Paper Code General Aptitude (GA) Marks Subject Marks(of selected subjects) GATE Total Marks
XL (Section P + Any TWO Sections) 15 25 + (2 x 30)=85 100
XH (Section B1 + Any ONE Section) 15 25 + (1 x 60)=85 100
XE (Section A + Any TWO Sections) 15 15 + (2 x 35)=85 100
GG [Part A + Part B (Section 1 Geology OR Section 2 Geophysics)] 15 25 + 60=85 100
AE, AR, AG, BT, CE, CH, CS, CY, EC, EE, ES, EY, IN, MA, ME, MN, MT, PE, PH, PI, TF, ST and BM 15 85 100

Exam Centre-

Ajmer (RJ), Alwar (RJ), Bikaner (RJ), Faridabad (HR), Greater NOIDA (UP), Gurugram (HR), Hisar (HR), Indore (MP), Jaipur (RJ), Jammu-Samba (JK), Jodhpur (RJ), Kota (RJ), Mathura (UP), New Delhi (DL), Rohtak (HR), Sikar (RJ), Sonepat (HR), Srinagar (JK), Udaipur (RJ), Ujjain (MP)

Ananthapuramu (AP), Angamaly (KL), Bagalkot (KA), Belagavi (Belgaum) (KA), Ballari (Bellary) (KA), Bengaluru South (KA), Bengaluru North (KA), Bidar (KA), Chikkamagaluru (KA), Davanagere (KA), Hassan (KA), Hubballi (Hubli) (KA), Hyderabad (TS), Kalaburagi (Gulbarga) (KA), Kannur (KL), Kasaragod (KL), Kolar (KA), Kozhikode (KL), Kurnool (AP), Malappuram (KL), Mangaluru (KA), Manipal (KA), Mysuru (Mysore) (KA), Palakkad (KL), Payyanur (KL), Port Blair (AN), Shivamogga (Shimoga) (KA), Thrissur (KL), Tumakuru (KA), Vatakara (KL)

Ahmedabad (GJ), Ahmednagar (MH), Amravati (MH), Anand (GJ), Aurangabad (MH), Baramati (MH), Bhavnagar (GJ), Bhuj (GJ), Chandrapur (MH), Gandhinagar (GJ), Goa (GA), Jalgaon (MH), Kolhapur (MH), Mehsana (GJ), Mumbai-Navi Mumbai-Thane (MH), Nagpur (MH), Nanded (MH), Nashik (MH), Pune (MH), Raigad (MH), Rajkot (GJ), Ratnagiri (MH), Sangli (MH), Satara (MH), Solapur (MH), Surat (GJ), Vadodara (GJ)

Agartala (TR), Aizawl (MZ), Asansol-Durgapur (WB), Bokaro Steel City (JH), Burdwan (WB), Dhanbad (JH), Dibrugarh (AS), Dimapur-Kohima (NL), Gangtok (SK), Guwahati (AS), Imphal (MN), Itanagar (AR), Jorhat (AS), Kalyani (WB), Muzaffarpur (BR), Patna (BR), Purnea (BR), Shillong (ML), Silchar (AS), Siliguri (WB), Tezpur (AS)

Agra (UP), Aligarh (UP), Allahabad (UP), Bareilly (UP), Bhopal (MP), Gorakhpur (UP), Gwalior (MP), Jabalpur (MP), Jhansi (UP), Kanpur (UP), Lucknow (UP), Varanasi (UP)

Balasore (OR), Berhampur (OR), Bhilai (CH), Bhubaneswar (OR), Bilaspur (CG) (CH), Cuttack (OR), Dhenkanal (OR), Eluru (AP), Hooghly (WB), Jamshedpur (JH), Kakinada (AP), Kharagpur (WB), Kolkata (WB), Raipur (CH), Rajamahendravaram (Rajahmundry) (AP), Ranchi (JH), Rourkela (OR), Sambalpur (OR), Srikakulam (AP), Tadepalligudem (AP), Vijayawada (AP), Visakhapatnam (AP) Vizianagaram (AP)

Alappuzha (KL), Aluva-Ernakulam (KL), Attingal (KL), Chengannur (KL), Chennai South (TN), Chennai West (TN), Chirala (AP), Chittoor (AP), Coimbatore (TN), Cuddalore ((TN), Dindigul (TN), Gudur (AP), Guntur (AP), Idukki (KL), Kadapa (AP), Kanjirapally (KL), Kanyakumari-Nagercoil (TN), Karimnagar (TS), Khammam (TS), Kodad (TS), Kollam (KL), Kothamangalam (KL), Kottayam (KL), Madurai (TN), Muvattupuzha (KL), Namakkal (TN), Nellore (AP), Ongole (AP), Puducherry (PY), Salem (TN), Thanjavur (TN), Thiruvananthapuram (KL), Thoothukudi (TN), Tiruchirapalli (TN), Tirunelveli (TN), Tirupati (AP), Vellore (TN), Villupuram (TN), Virudhunagar (TN), Warangal (TS)

Ambala (HR), Amritsar (PB), Bathinda (PB), Dehradun (UK), Ghaziabad (UP), Haldwani (UK), Hamirpur-Una (HP), Jalandhar (PB), Karnal (HR), Kurukshetra (HR), Ludhiana (PB), Meerut (UP), Mohali-Chandigarh (PB), Moradabad (UP), Muzaffarnagar (UP), NOIDA (UP), Panipat (HR), Pathankot (PB), Patiala-Sangrur (PB), Roorkee (UK), Shimla-Solan (HP), Yamunanagar (HR)

6 International Cities-Addis Ababa [Ethiopia], Colombo [Sri Lanka], Dhaka [Bangladesh], Dubai [UAE], Kathmandu [Nepal], Singapore

GATE 2022 Online Form GATE Documents Required at the time of Online application

  • Class X Certificate/Mark-sheet(DOB proof)
  • Graduation Degree
  • Graduation Mark-sheet
  • Masters degree-if applicable
  • Masters mark-sheet-if applicable
  • Category Certificate(SC/ST/OBC) – If applicable
  • Economic Weaker Section (EWS) Certificate -if applicable
  • Disability Certificate-If applicable
  • Dyslexic Certificate (if applicable
  • Valid ID Proof with a photograph like aadhaar card, voter id card, passport, PAN Card, etc.
  • Passport size photograph
  • Candidate’s Signature

How to apply Online For GATE application form 2022

  • GATE IITB has released GATE notification 2021 for GATE registration 2022.
  • One can apply between 30/08/2022 to 07/10/2022.
  • Please read the notification before applying for the  GATE registration form 2022.
  • Then check the eligibility, and documents required.
  • Kindly read scan documents like -Photos, Signs, Thumb, etc.
  • Before the Final submission of the GATE application form please preview and check your details.
  • Take a printout of the finally submitted application form on A4 size paper and keep the same for future reference.

Some Important Useful Links

 GATE 2022 Online Form

Click Here


Click Here

 GATE previous year’s paper

Click Here

 GATE Youtube Channel for Preparation

Click Here

  GATE brochure 2022

Click Here

GATE Official Website

Click Here

Also, See


GATE Question Papers-

GATE question paper 2020 –Aerospace Engineering,GATE zoology question paper, GATE, xe paper 2020, GATE Physics question paper

GATE question paper 2019-Click Here

GATE question paper 2018-Click Here

GATE 2022 syllabus

GATE Aptitude Syllabus

Verbal Aptitude
Basic English grammar: tenses, articles, adjectives, prepositions, conjunctions, verb-noun agreement, and other parts of speech Basic vocabulary: words, idioms, and phrases in context,Reading and comprehension Narrative sequencing

Quantitative Aptitude
Data interpretation: data graphs (bar graphs, pie charts, and other graphs representing data), 2- and 3-dimensional plots, maps, and tables Numerical computation and estimation: ratios, percentages, powers, exponents and logarithms, permutations and combinations, and series. Mensuration and geometry Elementary statistics and probability

Analytical Aptitude
Logic: deduction and induction, Analogy. Numerical relations and reasoning

Spatial Aptitude
Transformation of shapes: translation, rotation, scaling, mirroring, assembling, and grouping,Paper folding, cutting, and patterns in 2 and 3 dimensions

GATE Biotechnology Syllabus

Section 1: Engineering Mathematics
Linear Algebra: Matrices and determinants; Systems of linear equations; Eigen values and Eigen vectors.
Calculus: Limits, continuity and differentiability; Partial derivatives, maxima and minima; Sequences and series; Test for convergence.
Differential Equations: Linear and nonlinear first order ODEs, higher order ODEs with constant coefficients; Cauchy’s and Euler’s equations; Laplace transforms.
Probability and Statistics: Mean, median, mode and standard deviation; Random variables; Poisson, normal and binomial distributions; Correlation and regression analysis.
Numerical Methods: Solution of linear and nonlinear algebraic equations; Integration by trapezoidal and Simpson’s rule; Single step method for differential equations

Section 2: General Biology
Biochemistry: Biomolecules – structure and function; Biological membranes – structure, membrane channels and pumps, molecular motors, action potential and transport processes; Basic concepts and regulation of metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids, amino acids and nucleic acids; Photosynthesis, respiration and electron transport chain. Enzymes – Classification, catalytic and regulatory strategies; Enzyme kinetics – Michaelis-Menten equation; Enzyme inhibition – competitive, non-competitive and uncompetitive inhibition.
Microbiology: Bacterial classification and diversity; Microbial Ecology – microbes in marine, freshwater and terrestrial ecosystems; Microbial interactions; Viruses – structure and classification; Methods in microbiology; Microbial growth and nutrition; Nitrogen fixation; Microbial diseases and host-pathogen interactions; Antibiotics and antimicrobial resistance

Immunology: Innate and adaptive immunity, humoral and cell mediated immunity; Antibody structure and function; Molecular basis of antibody diversity; T cell and B cell development; Antigen-antibody reaction; Complement; Primary and secondary lymphoid organs; Major histocompatibility complex (MHC); Antigen processing and presentation; Polyclonal and monoclonal antibody; Regulation of immune response; Immune tolerance; Hypersensitivity; Autoimmunity; Graft versus host reaction; Immunization and vaccines

Section 3: Genetics, Cellular and Molecular Biology
Genetics and Evolutionary Biology: Mendelian inheritance; Gene interaction; Complementation;
Linkage, recombination and chromosome mapping; Extra chromosomal inheritance; Microbial genetics – transformation, transduction and conjugation; Horizontal gene transfer and transposable elements; Chromosomal variation; Genetic disorders; Population genetics; Epigenetics; Selection and inheritance; Adaptive and neutral evolution; Genetic drift; Species and speciation.
Cell Biology: Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell structure; Cell cycle and cell growth control; Cell-cell communication; Cell signaling and signal transduction; Post-translational modifications; Protein trafficking; Cell death and autophagy; Extra-cellular matrix.
Molecular Biology: Molecular structure of genes and chromosomes; Mutations and mutagenesis; Regulation of gene expression; Nucleic acid – replication, transcription, splicing, translation and their regulatory mechanisms; Non-coding and micro RNA; RNA interference; DNA damage and repair.

Section 4: Fundamentals of Biological Engineering
Engineering principles applied to biological systems: Material and energy balances for reactive and non-reactive systems; Recycle, bypass and purge processes; Stoichiometry of growth and product formation; Degree of reduction, electron balance, theoretical oxygen demand.
Classical thermodynamics and Bioenergetics: Laws of thermodynamics; Solution thermodynamics; Phase equilibria, reaction equilibria; Ligand binding; Membrane potential; Energetics of metabolic pathways, oxidation and reduction reactions.
Transport Processes: Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids, fluid flow – laminar and turbulent; Mixing in bioreactors, mixing time; Molecular diffusion and film theory; Oxygen transfer and uptake in bioreactor, kLa and its measurement; Conductive and convective heat transfer, LMTD, overall heat transfer coefficient; Heat exchangers.

Section 5: Bioprocess Engineering and Process Biotechnology
Bioreaction engineering: Rate law, zero and first order kinetics; Ideal reactors – batch, mixed flow and plug flow; Enzyme immobilization, diffusion effects – Thiele modulus, effectiveness factor, Damkoehler number; Kinetics of cell growth, substrate utilization and product formation; Structured and unstructured models; Batch, fed-batch and continuous processes; Microbial and enzyme reactors; Optimization and scale up.
Upstream and Downstream Processing: Media formulation and optimization; Sterilization of air and media; Filtration – membrane filtration, ultrafiltration; Centrifugation – high speed and ultra; Cell disruption; Principles of chromatography – ion exchange, gel filtration, hydrophobic interaction, affinity, GC, HPLC and FPLC; Extraction, adsorption and drying.
Instrumentation and Process Control: Pressure, temperature and flow measurement devices; Valves; First order and second order systems; Feedback and feed forward control; Types of controllers – proportional, derivative and integral control, tuning of controllers

Section 6: Plant, Animal and Microbial Biotechnology
Plants: Totipotency; Regeneration of plants; Plant growth regulators and elicitors; Tissue culture
and cell suspension culture system – methodology, kinetics of growth and nutrient optimization; Production of secondary metabolites; Hairy root culture; Plant products of industrial importance; Artificial seeds; Somaclonal variation; Protoplast, protoplast fusion – somatic hybrid and cybrid; Transgenic plants – direct and indirect methods of gene transfer techniques; Selection marker and reporter gene; Plastid transformation.
Animals: Culture media composition and growth conditions; Animal cell and tissue preservation;
Anchorage and non-anchorage dependent cell culture; Kinetics of cell growth; Micro & macro-carrier culture; Hybridoma technology; Stem cell technology; Animal cloning; Transgenic animals; Knock-out and knock-in animals.
Microbes: Production of biomass and primary/secondary metabolites – Biofuels, bioplastics, industrial enzymes, antibiotics; Large scale production and purification of recombinant proteins and metabolites; Clinical-, food- and industrial- microbiology; Screening strategies for new products.

Section 7: Recombinant DNA technology and Other Tools in Biotechnology
Recombinant DNA technology: Restriction and modification enzymes; Vectors – plasmids, bacteriophage and other viral vectors, cosmids, Ti plasmid, bacterial and yeast artificial chromosomes; Expression vectors; cDNA and genomic DNA library; Gene isolation and cloning, strategies for production of recombinant proteins; Transposons and gene targeting;
Molecular tools: Polymerase chain reaction; DNA/RNA labelling and sequencing; Southern and northern blotting; In-situ hybridization; DNA fingerprinting, RAPD, RFLP; Site-directed mutagenesis; Gene transfer technologies; CRISPR-Cas; Biosensing and biosensors.
Analytical tools: Principles of microscopy – light, electron, fluorescent and confocal; Principles of spectroscopy – UV, visible, CD, IR, fluorescence, FT-IR, MS, NMR; Electrophoresis; Micro-arrays; Enzymatic assays; Immunoassays – ELISA, RIA, immunohistochemistry; immunoblotting; Flow cytometry; Whole genome and ChIP sequencing.
Computational tools: Bioinformatics resources and search tools; Sequence and structure databases; Sequence analysis – sequence file formats, scoring matrices, alignment, phylogeny; Genomics, proteomics, metabolomics; Gene prediction; Functional annotation; Secondary structure and 3D structure prediction; Knowledge discovery in biochemical databases; Metagenomics; Metabolic engineering and systems biology.

GATE Civil Engineering Syllabus

Section 1: Engineering Mathematics
Linear Algebra: Matrix algebra; Systems of linear equations; Eigen values and Eigen vectors.
Calculus: Functions of single variable; Limit, continuity and differentiability; Mean value theorems, local maxima and minima; Taylor series; Evaluation of definite and indefinite integrals, application of definite integral to obtain area and volume; Partial derivatives; Total derivative; Gradient, Divergence and Curl, Vector identities; Directional derivatives; Line, Surface and Volume integrals.
Ordinary Differential Equation (ODE): First order (linear and non-linear) equations; higher order linear equations with constant coefficients; Euler-Cauchy equations; initial and boundary value problems.
Partial Differential Equation (PDE): Fourier series; separation of variables; solutions of one- dimensional diffusion equation; first and second order one-dimensional wave equation and two-dimensional Laplace equation.

Probability and Statistics: Sampling theorems; Conditional probability; Descriptive statistics – Mean, median, mode and standard deviation; Random Variables – Discrete and Continuous, Poisson and Normal Distribution; Linear regression.
Numerical Methods: Error analysis. Numerical solutions of linear and non-linear algebraic equations; Newton’s and Lagrange polynomials; numerical differentiation; Integration by trapezoidal and Simpson’s rule; Single and multi-step methods for first order differential equations.

Section 2: Structural Engineering
Engineering Mechanics: System of forces, free-body diagrams, equilibrium equations; Internal
forces in structures; Frictions and its applications; Centre of mass; Free Vibrations of undamped SDOF system.
Solid Mechanics: Bending moment and shear force in statically determinate beams; Simple stress and strain relationships; Simple bending theory, flexural and shear stresses, shear centre; Uniform torsion, Transformation of stress; buckling of column, combined and direct bending stresses.
Structural Analysis: Statically determinate and indeterminate structures by force/ energy methods; Method of superposition; Analysis of trusses, arches, beams, cables and frames; Displacement methods: Slope deflection and moment distribution methods; Influence lines; Stiffness and flexibility methods of structural analysis.
Construction Materials and Management: Construction Materials: Structural Steel – Composition, material properties and behaviour; Concrete – Constituents, mix design, short-term and long-term properties. Construction Management: Types of construction projects; Project planning and network analysis – PERT and CPM; Cost estimation

Concrete Structures: Working stress and Limit state design concepts; Design of beams, slabs columns; Bond and development length; Prestressed concrete beams.
Steel Structures: Working stress and Limit state design concepts; Design of tension and compression members, beams and beam- columns, column bases; Connections – simple and eccentric, beam-column connections, plate girders and trusses; Concept of plastic analysis -beams and frames.

Section 3: Geotechnical Engineering
Soil Mechanics: Three-phase system and phase relationships, index properties; Unified and Indian standard soil classification system; Permeability – one dimensional flow, Seepage through soils – two – dimensional flow, flow nets, uplift pressure, piping, capillarity, seepage force; Principle of effective stress and quicksand condition; Compaction of soils; One- dimensional consolidation, time rate of consolidation; Shear Strength, Mohr’s circle, effective and total shear strength parameters, Stress-Strain characteristics of clays and sand; Stress paths.
Foundation Engineering: Sub-surface investigations – Drilling bore holes, sampling, plate load
test, standard penetration and cone penetration tests; Earth pressure theories – Rankine and Coulomb; Stability of slopes – Finite and infinite slopes, Bishop’s method; Stress distribution in soils – Boussinesq’s theory; Pressure bulbs, Shallow foundations – Terzaghi’s and Meyerhoff’s bearing capacity theories, effect of water table; Combined footing and raft foundation; Contact pressure; Settlement analysis in sands and clays; Deep foundations – dynamic and static formulae, Axial load capacity of piles in sands and clays, pile load test, pile under lateral loading, pile group efficiency, negative skin friction.

Section 4: Water Resources Engineering
Fluid Mechanics: Properties of fluids, fluid statics; Continuity, momentum and energy equations and their applications; Potential flow, Laminar and turbulent flow; Flow in pipes, pipe networks; Concept of boundary layer and its growth; Concept of lift and drag.
Hydraulics: Forces on immersed bodies; Flow measurement in channels and pipes; Dimensional analysis and hydraulic similitude; Channel Hydraulics – Energy-depth relationships, specific energy, critical flow, hydraulic jump, uniform flow, gradually varied flow and water surface profiles.
Hydrology: Hydrologic cycle, precipitation, evaporation, evapo-transpiration, watershed, infiltration, unit hydrographs, hydrograph analysis, reservoir capacity, flood estimation and routing, surface run-off models, ground water hydrology – steady state well hydraulics and aquifers; Application of Darcy’s Law.
Irrigation: Types of irrigation systems and methods; Crop water requirements – Duty, delta, evapo-transpiration; Gravity Dams and Spillways; Lined and unlined canals, Design of weirs on permeable foundation; cross drainage structures.

Section 5: Environmental Engineering
Water and Waste Water Quality and Treatment: Basics of water quality standards – Physical, chemical and biological parameters; Water quality index; Unit processes and operations; Water requirement; Water distribution system; Drinking water treatment Sewerage system design, quantity of domestic wastewater, primary and secondary treatment. Effluent discharge standards; Sludge disposal; Reuse of treated sewage for different applications.
Air Pollution: Types of pollutants, their sources and impacts, air pollution control, air quality standards, Air quality Index and limits.
Municipal Solid Wastes: Characteristics, generation, collection and transportation of solid wastes, engineered systems for solid waste management (reuse/ recycle, energy recovery, treatment and disposal).

Section 6: Transportation Engineering
Transportation Infrastructure: Geometric design of highways – cross-sectional elements, sight distances, horizontal and vertical alignments.
Geometric design of railway Track – Speed and Cant.
Concept of airport runway length, calculations and corrections; taxiway and exit taxiway design.
Highway Pavements: Highway materials – desirable properties and tests; Desirable properties of bituminous paving mixes; Design factors for flexible and rigid pavements; Design of flexible and rigid pavement using IRC codes
Traffic Engineering: Traffic studies on flow and speed, peak hour factor, accident study, statistical analysis of traffic data; Microscopic and macroscopic parameters of traffic flow, fundamental relationships; Traffic signs; Signal design by Webster’s method; Types of intersections; Highway capacity.

Section 7: Geomatics Engineering
Principles of surveying; Errors and their adjustment; Maps – scale, coordinate system; Distance and angle measurement – Levelling and trigonometric levelling; Traversing and triangulation survey; Total station; Horizontal and vertical curves.
Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing – Scale, flying height; Basics of remote sensing and GIS.

GATE Computer Science Syllabus

Section 1: GATE cs syllabus For Engineering Mathematics
Discrete Mathematics: Propositional and first order logic. Sets, relations, functions, partial orders and lattices. Monoids, Groups. Graphs: connectivity, matching, coloring. Combinatorics:
counting, recurrence relations, generating functions.
Linear Algebra: Matrices, determinants, system of linear equations, eigenvalues and eigenvectors, LU decomposition.
Calculus: Limits, continuity and differentiability. Maxima and minima. Mean value theorem. Integration.
Probability and Statistics: Random variables. Uniform, normal, exponential, poisson and binomial distributions. Mean, median, mode and standard deviation. Conditional probability and Bayes theorem.
Computer Science and Information Technology

Section 2: GATE syllabus for cse Digital Logic
Boolean algebra. Combinational and sequential circuits. Minimization. Number representations
and computer arithmetic (fixed and floating point).
Section 3: Computer Organization and Architecture
Machine instructions and addressing modes. ALU, data‐path and control unit. Instruction pipelining, pipeline hazards. Memory hierarchy: cache, main memory and secondary storage; I/O interface (interrupt and DMA mode).
Section 4: Programming and Data Structures
Programming in C. Recursion. Arrays, stacks, queues, linked lists, trees, binary search trees, binary heaps, graphs.

Section 5: GATE cse syllabus Algorithms
Searching, sorting, hashing. Asymptotic worst case time and space complexity. Algorithm design techniques: greedy, dynamic programming and divide‐and‐conquer. Graph traversals, minimum spanning trees, shortest paths
Section 6: Theory of Computation
Regular expressions and finite automata. Context-free grammars and push-down automata.
Regular and contex-free languages, pumping lemma. Turing machines and undecidability.

Section 7: Compiler Design
Lexical analysis, parsing, syntax-directed translation. Runtime environments. Intermediate code generation. Local optimisation, Data flow analyses: constant propagation, liveness analysis, common subexpression elimination

Section 8: Operating System
System calls, processes, threads, inter‐process communication, concurrency and synchronization. Deadlock. CPU and I/O scheduling. Memory management and virtual memory. File systems.
Section 9: Databases
ER‐model. Relational model: relational algebra, tuple calculus, SQL. Integrity constraints, normal forms. File organization, indexing (e.g., B and B+ trees). Transactions and concurrency control.
Section 10: Computer Networks Concept of layering: OSI and TCP/IP Protocol Stacks; Basics of packet, circuit and virtual circuit-switching; Data link layer: framing, error detection, Medium Access Control, Ethernet bridging; Routing protocols: shortest path, flooding, distance vector and link state routing; Fragmentation and IP addressing, IPv4, CIDR notation, Basics of IP support protocols (ARP, DHCP, ICMP), Network Address Translation (NAT); Transport layer: flow control and congestion control, UDP, TCP, sockets; Application layer protocols: DNS, SMTP, HTTP, FTP, Email.

GATE Chemistry Syllabus

Section 1: Physical Chemistry
Structure: Postulates of quantum mechanics. Operators. Time dependent and time independent Schrödinger equations. Born interpretation. Dirac bra-ket notation. Particle in a box: infinite and finite square wells; concept of tunnelling; particle in 1D, 2D and 3D-box; applications. Harmonic oscillator: harmonic and anharmonic potentials; hermite polynomials. Rotational motion: Angular momentum operators, Rigid rotor. Hydrogen and hydrogen-like atoms : atomic orbitals; radial distribution function. Multi-electron atoms: orbital approximation; electron spin; Pauli exclusion principle; slater determinants. Approximation Methods: Variation method and secular determinants; first order perturbation techniques. Atomic units. Molecular structure and Chemical bonding: Born-Oppenheimer approximation; Valence bond theory and linear combination of atomic orbitals – molecular orbital (LCAO-MO) theory. Hybrid orbitals. Applications of LCAO-MO theory to H2+, H2; orbital theory (MOT) of homo- and heteronuclear diatomic molecules. Hückel approximation and its application to annular π – electron systems.
Group theory: Symmetry elements and operations; Point groups and character tables; Internal coordinates and vibrational modes; symmetry adapted linear combination of atomic orbitals (LCAO-MO); construction of hybrid orbitals using symmetry aspects.

Spectroscopy: Atomic spectroscopy; Russell-Saunders coupling; Term symbols and spectral details; origin of selection rules. Rotational, vibrational, electronic and Raman spectroscopy of diatomic and polyatomic molecules. Line broadening. Einstein’s coefficients. Relationship of transition moment integral with molar extinction coefficient and oscillator strength. Basic principles of nuclear magnetic resonance: gyromagnetic ratio; chemical shift, nuclear coupling.

Equilibrium: Laws of thermodynamics. Standard states. Thermochemistry. Thermodynamic functions and their relationships: Gibbs-Helmholtz and Maxwell relations, Gibbs-Duhem equation, van’t Hoff equation. Criteria of spontaneity and equilibrium. Absolute entropy. Partial molar quantities. Thermodynamics of mixing. Chemical potential. Fugacity, activity and activity coefficients. Ideal and Non-ideal solutions, Raoult’s Law and Henry’s Law, Chemical equilibria. Dependence of equilibrium constant on temperature and pressure. Ionic mobility and conductivity. Debye-Hückel limiting law. Debye-Hückel-Onsager equation. Standard electrode potentials and electrochemical cells. Nernst Equation and its application, relationship between Electrode potential and thermodynamic quantities, Potentiometric and conductometric titrations. Phase rule. Clausius- Clapeyron equation. Phase diagram of one component systems: CO2, H2O, S; two component systems: liquid- vapour, liquid-liquid and solid-liquid systems. Fractional distillation. Azeotropes and eutectics. Statistical thermodynamics: microcanonical, canonical and grand canonical ensembles, Boltzmann distribution, partition functions and thermodynamic properties.

Kinetics (Topic have been rearranged): Elementary, parallel, opposing and consecutive reactions. Steady state approximation. Mechanisms of complex reactions. Unimolecular reactions. Potential energy surfaces and classical trajectories, Concept of Saddle points, Transition state theory: Eyring equation, thermodynamic aspects. Kinetics of polymerization. Catalysis concepts and enzyme catalysis. Kinetic isotope effects. Fast reaction kinetics: relaxation and flow methods. Diffusion controlled reactions. Kinetics of photochemical and photophysical processes.
Surfaces and Interfaces: Physisorption and chemisorption. Langmuir, Freundlich and Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) isotherms. Surface catalysis: Langmuir-Hinshelwood mechanism. Surface tension, viscosity. Self-assembly. Physical chemistry of colloids, micelles and macromolecules.

Section 2: Inorganic Chemistry
Main Group Elements: Hydrides, halides, oxides, oxoacids, nitrides, sulfides – shapes and reactivity. Structure and bonding of boranes, carboranes, silicones, silicates, boron nitride, borazines and phosphazenes. Allotropes of carbon, phosphorous and sulphur. Industrial synthesis of compounds of main group elements. Chemistry of noble gases, pseudohalogens, and interhalogen compounds. Acid-base concepts and principles (Lewis, Brønsted, HSAB and acid-base catalysis).
Transition Elements: Coordination chemistry – structure and isomerism, theories of bonding (VBT, CFT, and MOT). Energy level diagrams in various crystal fields, CFSE, applications of CFT, Jahn-Teller distortion. Electronic spectra of transition metal complexes: spectroscopic term symbols, selection rules, Orgel and Tanabe-Sugano diagrams, nephelauxetic effect and Racah parameter, charge-transfer spectra. Magnetic properties of transition metal complexes. Ray-Dutt and Bailar twists, Reaction mechanisms: kinetic and thermodynamic stability, substitution and redox reactions. Metal-metal multiple bond

Lanthanides and Actinides: Recovery. Periodic properties, spectra and magnetic properties.
Organometallics: 18-Electron rule; metal-alkyl, metal-carbonyl, metal-olefin and metal- carbene complexes and metallocenes. Fluxionality in organometallic complexes. Types of organometallic reactions. Homogeneous catalysis – Hydrogenation, hydroformylation, acetic acid synthesis, metathesis and olefin oxidation. Heterogeneous catalysis – Fischer- Tropsch reaction, Ziegler-Natta polymerization.
Radioactivity: Detection of radioactivity, Decay processes, half-life of radioactive elements, fission and fusion processes.
Bioinorganic Chemistry: Ion (Na+ and K+) transport, oxygen binding, transport and utilization, electron transfer reactions, nitrogen fixation, metalloenzymes containing magnesium, molybdenum, iron, cobalt, copper and zinc.
Solids: Crystal systems and lattices, Miller planes, crystal packing, crystal defects, Bragg’s law, ionic crystals, structures of AX, AX2, ABX3 type compounds, spinels, band theory, metals and semiconductors.

Instrumental Methods of Analysis: UV-visible, fluorescence and FTIR spectrophotometry, NMR and ESR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, atomic absorption spectroscopy, Mössbauer spectroscopy (Fe and Sn) and X-ray crystallography. Chromatography including GC and HPLC. Electroanalytical methods- polarography, cyclic voltammetry, ion-selective electrodes. Thermoanalytical methods

Section 3: Organic Chemistry
Stereochemistry: Chirality and symmetry of organic molecules with or without chiral centres and determination of their absolute configurations. Relative stereochemistry in compounds having more than one stereogenic centre. Homotopic, enantiotopic and diastereotopic atoms, groups and faces. Stereoselective and stereospecific synthesis. Conformational analysis of acyclic and cyclic compounds. Geometrical isomerism and optical isomerism. Configurational and conformational effects, atropisomerism, and neighbouring group participation on reactivity and selectivity/specificity.

Reaction Mechanisms: Basic mechanistic concepts – kinetic versus thermodynamic control, Hammond’s postulate and Curtin-Hammett principle. Methods of determining reaction mechanisms through kinetics, identification of products, intermediates and isotopic labelling. Linear free-energy relationship – Hammett and Taft equations. Nucleophilic and electrophilic substitution reactions (both aromatic and aliphatic). Addition reactions to carbon-carbon and carbon-heteroatom (N and O) multiple bonds. Elimination reactions. Reactive intermediates – carbocations, carbanions, carbenes, nitrenes, arynes and free radicals. Molecular rearrangements.

Organic Synthesis: Synthesis, reactions, mechanisms and selectivity involving the following classes of compounds – alkenes, alkynes, arenes, alcohols, phenols, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids, esters, nitriles, halides, nitro compounds, amines and amides. Uses of Mg, Li, Cu, B, Zn, P, S, Sn and Si based reagents in organic synthesis. Carbon-carbon bond formation through coupling reactions – Heck, Suzuki, Stille, Sonogoshira, Negishi, Kumada, Hiyama, Tsuji-Trost, olefin metathesis and McMurry. Concepts of multistep synthesis – retrosynthetic analysis,
strategic disconnections, synthons and synthetic equivalents. Atom economy and Green Chemistry, Umpolung reactivity – formyl and acyl anion equivalents. Selectivity in organic synthesis – chemo-, regio- and stereoselectivity. Protection and deprotection of functional groups. Concepts of asymmetric synthesis – resolution (including enzymatic), desymmetrization and use of chiral auxiliaries, organocatalysis. Carbon-carbon and carbon-heteroatom bond forming reactions through enolates (including boron enolates), enamines and silyl enol ethers. Stereoselective addition to C=O groups (Cram, Prelog and Felkin-Anh models).

Pericyclic Reactions and Photochemistry: Electrocyclic, cycloaddition and sigmatropic reactions. Orbital correlations – FMO and PMO treatments, Woodward-Hoffmann rule. Photochemistry of alkenes, arenes and carbonyl compounds. Photooxidation and photoreduction. Di-π-methane rearrangement, Barton-McCombie reaction, Norrish type-I and II cleavage reaction.
Heterocyclic Compounds: Structure, preparation, properties and reactions of furan, pyrrole, thiophene, pyridine, indole, quinoline and isoquinoline.
Biomolecules: Structure, properties and reactions of mono- and di-saccharides, physicochemical properties of amino acids, chemical synthesis of peptides, chemical structure determination of peptides and proteins, structural features of proteins, nucleic acids, lipids, steroids, terpenoids, carotenoids, and alkaloids.
Experimental techniques in organic chemistry: Optical rotation (polarimetry). Applications of various chromatographic techniques such as thin-layer, column, HPLC and GC. Applications of UV-visible, IR, NMR and Mass spectrometry in the structural determination of organic molecules.

GATE Instrumentation Syllabus

Section 1: GATE exam syllabus for Engineering Mathematics
Linear Algebra: Matrix algebra, systems of linear equations, consistency and rank, Eigen value and Eigen vectors.
Calculus: Mean value theorems, theorems of integral calculus, partial derivatives, maxima and minima, multiple integrals, Fourier series, vector identities, line, surface and volume integrals, Stokes, Gauss and Green’s theorems.
Differential equations: First order equation (linear and nonlinear), second order linear differential equations with constant coefficients, method of variation of parameters, Cauchy’s and Euler’s equations, initial and boundary value problems, solution of partial differential equations: variable separable method.
Analysis of complex variables: Analytic functions, Cauchy’s integral theorem and integral formula, Taylor’s and Laurent’s series, residue theorem, solution of integrals.
Probability and Statistics: Sampling theorems, conditional probability, mean, median, mode, standard deviation and variance; random variables: discrete and continuous distributions: normal, Poisson and binomial distributions

Numerical Methods: Matrix inversion, solutions of non-linear algebraic equations, iterative methods for solving differential equations, numerical integration, regression and correlation

Section 2: Electricity and Magnetism
Coulomb’s Law, Electric Field Intensity, Electric Flux Density, Gauss’s Law, Divergence, Electric field and potential due to point, line, plane and spherical charge distributions, Effect of dielectric medium, Capacitance of simple configurations, Biot‐Savart’s law, Ampere’s law, Curl, Faraday’s law, Lorentz force, Inductance, Magnetomotive force, Reluctance, Magnetic circuits, Self and Mutual inductance of simple configurations

Section 3: Electrical Circuits and Machines
Voltage and current sources: independent, dependent, ideal and practical; v-i relationships of resistor, inductor, mutual inductance and capacitor; transient analysis of RLC circuits with dc excitation.
Kirchoff’s laws, mesh and nodal analysis, superposition, Thevenin, Norton, maximum power transfer and reciprocity theorems.
Peak-, average- and rms values of ac quantities; apparent-, active- and reactive powers; phasor analysis, impedance and admittance; series and parallel resonance, locus diagrams, realization of basic filters with R, L and C elements. transient analysis of RLC circuits with ac excitation.
One-port and two-port networks, driving point impedance and admittance, open-, and short circuit parameters.

Single phase transformer: equivalent circuit, phasor diagram, open circuit and short circuit tests, regulation and efficiency; Three phase induction motors: principle of operation, types, performance, torque-speed characteristics, no-load and blocked rotor tests, equivalent circuit, starting and speed control; Types of losses and efficiency calculations of electric machines.
Section 4: Signals and Systems
Periodic, aperiodic and impulse signals; Laplace, Fourier and z-transforms; transfer function, frequency response of first and second order linear time invariant systems, impulse response of systems; convolution, correlation. Discrete time system: impulse response, frequency response, pulse transfer function; DFT and FFT; basics of IIR and FIR filters.

Section 5: Control Systems
Feedback principles, signal flow graphs, transient response, steady-state-errors, Bode plot, phase and gain margins, Routh and Nyquist criteria, root loci, design of lead, lag and lead-lag
compensators, state-space representation of systems; time-delay systems; mechanical, hydraulic and pneumatic system components, synchro pair, servo and stepper motors, servo valves; on-off, P, PI, PID, cascade, feedforward, and ratio controllers, tuning of PID controllers and sizing of control valves.
Section 6: Analog Electronics
Characteristics and applications of diode, Zener diode, BJT and MOSFET; small signal analysis of transistor circuits, feedback amplifiers. Characteristics of ideal and practical operational amplifiers; applications of opamps: adder, subtractor, integrator, differentiator, difference amplifier, instrumentation amplifier, precision rectifier, active filters, oscillators, signal generators, voltage controlled oscillators and phase locked loop, sources and effects of noise and interference in electronic circuits.

Section 7: Digital Electronics
Combinational logic circuits, minimization of Boolean functions. IC families: TTL and CMOS. Arithmetic circuits, comparators, Schmitt trigger, multi-vibrators, sequential circuits, flipflops, shift registers, timers and counters; sample-and-hold circuit, multiplexer, analog-to-digital (successive approximation, integrating, flash and sigma-delta) and digital-to-analog converters (weighted R, R-2R ladder and current steering logic). Characteristics of ADC and DAC (resolution, quantization, significant bits, conversion/settling time); basics of number systems, Embedded Systems: Microprocessor and microcontroller applications, memory and input-output interfacing; basics of data acquisition systems, basics of distributed control systems (DCS) and programmable logic controllers (PLC).

Section 8: GATE exam 2020 syllabus for Measurements
SI units, standards (R,L,C, voltage, current and frequency), systematic and random errors in measurement, expression of uncertainty – accuracy and precision, propagation of errors, linear and weighted regression. Bridges: Wheatstone, Kelvin, Megohm, Maxwell, Anderson, Schering and Wien for measurement of R, L, C and frequency, Q-meter. Measurement of voltage, current and power in single and three phase circuits; ac and dc current probes; true rms meters, voltage and current scaling, instrument transformers, timer/counter, time, phase and frequency measurements, digital voltmeter, digital multimeter; oscilloscope, shielding and grounding.

Section 9: Sensors and Industrial Instrumentation
Resistive-, capacitive-, inductive-, piezoelectric-, Hall effect sensors and associated signal conditioning circuits; transducers for industrial instrumentation: displacement (linear and angular), velocity, acceleration, force, torque, vibration, shock, pressure (including low pressure), flow (variable head, variable area, electromagnetic, ultrasonic, turbine and open channel flow meters) temperature (thermocouple, bolometer, RTD (3/4 wire), thermistor, pyrometer and semiconductor); liquid level, pH, conductivity and viscosity measurement. 4-20 mA two-wire transmitter.

Section 10: Communication and Optical Instrumentation
Amplitude- and frequency modulation and demodulation; Shannon’s sampling theorem, pulse code modulation; frequency and time division multiplexing, amplitude-, phase-, frequency-, quadrature amplitude, pulse shift keying for digital modulation; optical sources and detectors: LED, laser, photo-diode, light dependent resistor, square law detectors and their characteristics; interferometer: applications in metrology; basics of fiber optic sensing. UV-VIS Spectro photometers, Mass spectrometer.

GATE 2022 Online Form GATE Mathematics Syllabus

Calculus: Functions of two or more variables, continuity, directional derivatives, partial derivatives, total derivative, maxima and minima, saddle point, method of Lagrange’s multipliers; Double and Triple integrals and their applications to area, volume and surface area; Vector Calculus: gradient, divergence and curl, Line integrals and Surface integrals, Green’s theorem, Stokes’ theorem, and Gauss divergence theorem.
Linear Algebra: Finite dimensional vector spaces over real or complex fields; Linear transformations and their matrix representations, rank and nullity; systems of linear equations, characteristic polynomial, eigenvalues and eigenvectors, diagonalization, minimal polynomial, Cayley-Hamilton Theorem, Finite dimensional inner product spaces, Gram-Schmidt orthonormalization process, symmetric, skew-symmetric, Hermitian, skew-Hermitian, normal, orthogonal and unitary matrices; diagonalization by a unitary matrix, Jordan canonical form; bilinear and quadratic forms.

Real Analysis: Metric spaces, connectedness, compactness, completeness; Sequences and series of functions, uniform convergence, Ascoli-Arzela theorem; Weierstrass approximation theorem; contraction mapping principle, Power series; Differentiation of functions of several variables, Inverse and Implicit function theorems; Lebesgue measure on the real line, measurable functions; Lebesgue integral, Fatou’s lemma, monotone convergence theorem, dominated convergence theorem.
Complex Analysis: Functions of a complex variable: continuity, differentiability, analytic functions, harmonic functions; Complex integration: Cauchy’s integral theorem and formula; Liouville’s theorem, maximum modulus principle, Morera’s theorem; zeros and singularities; Power series, radius of convergence, Taylor’s series and Laurent’s series; Residue theorem and applications for evaluating real integrals; Rouche’s theorem, Argument principle, Schwarz lemma; Conformal mappings, Mobius transformations.

Ordinary Differential equations: First order ordinary differential equations, existence and uniqueness theorems for initial value problems, linear ordinary differential equations of higher order with constant coefficients; Second order linear ordinary differential equations with variable coefficients; Cauchy-Euler equation, method of Laplace transforms for solving ordinary differential equations, series solutions (power series, Frobenius method); Legendre and Bessel functions and their orthogonal properties; Systems of linear first order ordinary differential equations, Sturm’s oscillation and separation theorems, Sturm-Liouville eigenvalue problems, Planar autonomous systems of ordinary differential equations: Stability of stationary points for linear systems with constant coefficients, Linearized stability, Lyapunov functions.
Algebra: Groups, subgroups, normal subgroups, quotient groups, homomorphisms, automorphisms; cyclic groups, permutation groups, Group action, Sylow’s theorems and their applications; Rings, ideals, prime and maximal ideals, quotient rings, unique factorization domains, Principle ideal domains, Euclidean domains, polynomial rings, Eisenstein’s irreducibility criterion; Fields, finite fields, field extensions, algebraic extensions, algebraically closed fields

Functional Analysis: Normed linear spaces, Banach spaces, Hahn-Banach theorem, open mapping and closed graph theorems, principle of uniform boundedness; Inner-product spaces Hilbert spaces, orthonormal bases, projection theorem, Riesz representation theorem, spectral theorem for compact self-adjoint operators.
Numerical Analysis: Systems of linear equations: Direct methods (Gaussian elimination, LU decomposition, Cholesky factorization), Iterative methods (Gauss-Seidel and Jacobi) and their convergence for diagonally dominant coefficient matrices; Numerical solutions of nonlinear equations: bisection method, secant method, Newton-Raphson method, fixed point iteration; Interpolation: Lagrange and Newton forms of interpolating polynomial, Error in polynomial interpolation of a function; Numerical differentiation and error, Numerical integration: Trapezoidal and Simpson rules, Newton-Cotes integration formulas, composite rules, mathematical errors involved in numerical integration formulae; Numerical solution of initial value problems for ordinary differential equations: Methods of Euler, Runge-Kutta method of order 2.

Partial Differential Equations: Method of characteristics for first order linear and quasilinear partial differential equations; Second order partial differential equations in two independent variables: classification and canonical forms, method of separation of variables for Laplace equation in Cartesian and polar coordinates, heat and wave equations in one space variable; Wave equation: Cauchy problem and d’Alembert formula, domains of dependence and influence, non-homogeneous wave equation; Heat equation: Cauchy problem; Laplace and Fourier transform methods.
Topology: Basic concepts of topology, bases, subbases, subspace topology, order topology, product topology, quotient topology, metric topology, connectedness, compactness, countability and separation axioms, Urysohn’s Lemma.

Linear Programming: Linear programming models, convex sets, extreme points; Basic feasible solution, graphical method, simplex method, two phase methods, revised simplex method ; Infeasible and unbounded linear programming models, alternate optima; Duality theory, weak duality and strong duality; Balanced and unbalanced transportation problems, Initial basic feasible solution of balanced transportation problems (least cost method, north-west corner rule, Vogel’s approximation method); Optimal solution, modified distribution method; Solving assignment problems, Hungarian method.

GATE 2022 Online Form GATE Mechanical Engineering Syllabus

Section 1: Engineering GATE Mathematics
Linear Algebra: Matrix algebra, systems of linear equations, eigenvalues and eigenvectors.
Calculus: Functions of single variable, limit, continuity and differentiability, mean value theorems, indeterminate forms; evaluation of definite and improper integrals; double and triple integrals; partial derivatives, total derivative, Taylor series (in one and two variables), maxima and minima, Fourier series; gradient, divergence and curl, vector identities, directional derivatives, line, surface and volume integrals, applications of Gauss, Stokes and Green’s theorems.

Differential equations: First order equations (linear and nonlinear); higher order linear differential equations with constant coefficients; Euler-Cauchy equation; initial and boundary value problems; Laplace transforms; solutions of heat, wave and Laplace’s equations.
Complex variables: Analytic functions; Cauchy-Riemann equations; Cauchy’s integral theorem and integral formula; Taylor and Laurent series.
Probability and Statistics: Definitions of probability, sampling theorems, conditional probability; mean, median, mode and standard deviation; random variables, binomial, Poisson and normal distributions.
Numerical Methods: Numerical solutions of linear and non-linear algebraic equations; integration by trapezoidal and Simpson’s rules; single and multi-step methods for differential equations.

Section 2: GATE mechanical syllabus for -Applied Mechanics and Design
Engineering Mechanics: Free-body diagrams and equilibrium; friction and its applications including rolling friction, belt-pulley, brakes, clutches, screw jack, wedge, vehicles, etc.; trusses and frames; virtual work; kinematics and dynamics of rigid bodies in plane motion; impulse and momentum (linear and angular) and energy formulations; Lagrange’s equation.
Mechanics of Materials: Stress and strain, elastic constants, Poisson’s ratio; Mohr’s circle for plane stress and plane strain; thin cylinders; shear force and bending moment diagrams; bending and shear stresses; concept of shear centre; deflection of beams; torsion of circular shafts; Euler’s theory of columns; energy methods; thermal stresses; strain gauges and rosettes; testing of materials with universal testing machine; testing of hardness and impact strength.
Theory of Machines: Displacement, velocity and acceleration analysis of plane mechanisms; dynamic analysis of linkages; cams; gears and gear trains; flywheels and governors; balancing of reciprocating and rotating masses; gyroscope.

Vibrations: Free and forced vibration of single degree of freedom systems, effect of damping; vibration isolation; resonance; critical speeds of shafts.
Machine Design: Design for static and dynamic loading; failure theories; fatigue strength and the S-N diagram; principles of the design of machine elements such as bolted, riveted and welded joints; shafts, gears, rolling and sliding contact bearings, brakes and clutches, springs.

Section 3: GATE syllabus for mechanical engineering -Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences
Fluid Mechanics: Fluid properties; fluid statics, forces on submerged bodies, stability of floating bodies; control-volume analysis of mass, momentum and energy; fluid acceleration; differential equations of continuity and momentum; Bernoulli’s equation; dimensional analysis; viscous flow of incompressible fluids, boundary layer, elementary turbulent flow, flow through pipes, head losses in pipes, bends and fittings; basics of compressible fluid flow.
Heat-Transfer: Modes of heat transfer; one dimensional heat conduction, resistance concept and electrical analogy, heat transfer through fins; unsteady heat conduction, lumped parameter system, Heisler’s charts; thermal boundary layer, dimensionless parameters in free and forced convective heat transfer, heat transfer correlations for flow over flat plates and through pipes, effect of turbulence; heat exchanger performance, LMTD and NTU methods; radiative heat transfer, Stefan- Boltzmann law, Wien’s displacement law, black and grey surfaces, view factors, radiation network analysis

GATE mechanical -Thermodynamics syllabus: Thermodynamic systems and processes; properties of pure substances, behavior of ideal and real gases; zeroth and first laws of thermodynamics, calculation of work and heat in various processes; second law of thermodynamics; thermodynamic property charts and tables, availability and irreversibility; thermodynamic relations.
Applications: Power Engineering: Air and gas compressors; vapour and gas power cycles, concepts of regeneration and reheat. I.C. Engines: Air-standard Otto, Diesel and dual cycles. Refrigeration and air-conditioning: Vapour and gas refrigeration and heat pump cycles; properties of moist air, psychrometric chart, basic psychrometric processes. Turbomachinery: Impulse and reaction principles, velocity diagrams, Pelton-wheel, Francis and Kaplan turbines; steam and gas turbines

Section 4: Materials, Manufacturing and Industrial Engineering
Engineering Materials: Structure and properties of engineering materials, phase diagrams, heat treatment, stress-strain diagrams for engineering materials.
Casting, Forming and Joining Processes: Different types of castings, design of patterns, moulds and cores; solidification and cooling; riser and gating design. Plastic deformation and yield criteria; fundamentals of hot and cold working processes; load estimation for bulk (forging, rolling, extrusion, drawing) and sheet (shearing, deep drawing, bending) metal forming processes; principles of powder metallurgy. Principles of welding, brazing, soldering and adhesive bonding.
Machining and Machine Tool Operations: Mechanics of machining; basic machine tools; single and multi-point cutting tools, tool geometry and materials, tool life and wear; economics of machining; principles of non-traditional machining processes; principles of work holding, jigs and fixtures; abrasive machining processes; NC/CNC machines and CNC programming.
Metrology and Inspection: Limits, fits and tolerances; linear and angular measurements; comparators; interferometry; form and finish measurement; alignment and testing methods; tolerance analysis in manufacturing and assembly; concepts of coordinate-measuring machine (CMM).
Computer Integrated Manufacturing: Basic concepts of CAD/CAM and their integration tools; additive manufacturing.
Production Planning and Control: Forecasting models, aggregate production planning, scheduling, materials requirement planning; lean manufacturing.
Inventory Control: Deterministic models; safety stock inventory control systems.
Operations Research: Linear programming, simplex method, transportation, assignment, network flow models, simple queuing models, PERT and CPM.

GATE 2022 Online Form GATE Physics Syllabus

Section 1: Mathematical Physics
Vector calculus: linear vector space: basis, orthogonality and completeness; matrices; similarity transformations, diagonalization, eigenvalues and eigenvectors; linear differential equations: second order linear differential equations and solutions involving special functions; complex
analysis: Cauchy-Riemann conditions, Cauchy’s theorem, singularities, residue theorem and applications; Laplace transform, Fourier analysis; elementary ideas about tensors: covariant and contravariant tensors

Section 2: Classical Mechanics
Lagrangian formulation: D’Alembert’s principle, Euler-Lagrange equation, Hamilton’s principle, calculus of variations; symmetry and conservation laws; central force motion: Kepler problem and Rutherford scattering; small oscillations: coupled oscillations and normal modes; rigid body dynamics: interia tensor, orthogonal transformations, Euler angles, Torque free motion of a symmetric top; Hamiltonian and Hamilton’s equations of motion; Liouville’s theorem; canonical transformations: action-angle variables, Poisson brackets, Hamilton-Jacobi equation.
Special theory of relativity: Lorentz transformations, relativistic kinematics, mass-energy equivalence.

Section 3: Electromagnetic Theory
Solutions of electrostatic and magnetostatic problems including boundary value problems; method of images; separation of variables; dielectrics and conductors; magnetic materials; multipole expansion; Maxwell’s equations; scalar and vector potentials; Coulomb and Lorentz gauges; electromagnetic waves in free space, non-conducting and conducting media; reflection
and transmission at normal and oblique incidences; polarization of electromagnetic waves; Poynting vector, Poynting theorem, energy and momentum of electromagnetic waves; radiation
from a moving charge.

Section 4: GATE new syllabus for -Quantum Mechanics
Postulates of quantum mechanics; uncertainty principle; Schrodinger equation; Dirac Bra-Ket notation, linear vectors and operators in Hilbert space; one dimensional potentials: step potential, finite rectangular well, tunneling from a potential barrier, particle in a box, harmonic oscillator; two and three dimensional systems: concept of degeneracy; hydrogen atom; angular momentum and spin; addition of angular momenta; variational method and WKB approximation, time independent perturbation theory; elementary scattering theory, Born approximation; symmetries in quantum mechanical systems

Section 5: Thermodynamics and Statistical Physics
Laws of thermodynamics; macrostates and microstates; phase space; ensembles; partition function, free energy, calculation of thermodynamic quantities; classical and quantum statistics; degenerate Fermi gas; black body radiation and Planck’s distribution law; Bose-Einstein condensation; first and second order phase transitions, phase equilibria, critical point

Section 6: Atomic and Molecular Physics
Spectra of one-and many-electron atoms; spin-orbit interaction: LS and jj couplings; fine and hyperfine structures; Zeeman and Stark effects; electric dipole transitions and selection rules; rotational and vibrational spectra of diatomic molecules; electronic transitions in diatomic molecules, Franck-Condon principle; Raman effect; EPR, NMR, ESR, X-ray spectra; lasers: Einstein coefficients, population inversion, two and three level systems.
Section 7: Solid State Physics
Elements of crystallography; diffraction methods for structure determination; bonding in solids; lattice vibrations and thermal properties of solids; free electron theory; band theory of solids: nearly free electron and tight binding models; metals, semiconductors and insulators; conductivity, mobility and effective mass; Optical properties of solids; Kramer’s-Kronig relation, intra- and inter-band transitions; dielectric properties of solid; dielectric function, polarizability, ferroelectricity; magnetic properties of solids; dia, para, ferro, antiferro and ferri-magnetism, domains and magnetic anisotropy; superconductivity: Type-I and Type II superconductors, Meissner effect, London equation, BCS Theory, flux quantization.

Section 8: GATE syllabus for-Electronics
Semiconductors in equilibrium: electron and hole statistics in intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductors; metal-semiconductor junctions; Ohmic and rectifying contacts; PN diodes, bipolar junction transistors, field effect transistors; negative and positive feedback circuits; oscillators, operational amplifiers, active filters; basics of digital logic circuits, combinational and sequential circuits, flip-flops, timers, counters, registers, A/D and D/A conversion.
Section 9: Nuclear and Particle Physics
Nuclear radii and charge distributions, nuclear binding energy, electric and magnetic moments; semi-empirical mass formula; nuclear models; liquid drop model, nuclear shell model; nuclear force and two nucleon problem; alpha decay, beta-decay, electromagnetic transitions in nuclei; Rutherford scattering, nuclear reactions, conservation laws; fission and fusion; particle accelerators and detectors; elementary particles; photons, baryons, mesons and leptons; quark model; conservation laws, isospin symmetry, charge conjugation, parity and time-reversal invariance.

GATE XE Syllabus

Section 1: Linear Algebra
Algebra of real matrices: Determinant, inverse and rank of a matrix; System of linear equations (conditions for unique solution, no solution and infinite number of solutions); Eigenvalues and eigenvectors of matrices; Properties of eigenvalues and eigenvectors of symmetric matrices, diagonalization of matrices; Cayley-Hamilton Theorem

Section 2: Calculus
Functions of single variable: Limit, indeterminate forms and L’Hospital’s rule; Continuity and differentiability; Mean value theorems; Maxima and minima; Taylor’s theorem; Fundamental theorem and mean value theorem of integral calculus; Evaluation of definite and improper integrals; Applications of definite integrals to evaluate areas and volumes (rotation of a curve about an axis).
Functions of two variables: Limit, continuity and partial derivatives; Directional derivative; Total derivative; Maxima, minima and saddle points; Method of Lagrange multipliers; Double integrals
and their applications.
Sequences and series: Convergence of sequences and series; Tests of convergence of series with non-negative terms (ratio, root and integral tests); Power series; Taylor’s series; Fourier Series of functions of period 2π.

Section 3: GATE syllabus 2020 for-Vector Calculus
Gradient, divergence and curl; Line integrals and Green’s theorem.
Section 4: Complex variables
Complex numbers, Argand plane and polar representation of complex numbers; De Moivre’s theorem; Analytic functions; Cauchy-Riemann equations.
Section 5: Ordinary Differential Equations
First order equations (linear and nonlinear); Second order linear differential equations with constant coefficients; Cauchy-Euler equation; Second order linear differential equations with variable coefficients; Wronskian; Method of variation of parameters; Eigenvalue problem for second order equations with constant coefficients; Power series solutions for ordinary points.

Section 6: Partial Differential Equations
Classification of second order linear partial differential equations; Method of separation of variables: One dimensional heat equation and two dimensional Laplace equation.

Section 7: Probability and Statistics
Axioms of probability; Conditional probability; Bayes’ Theorem; Mean, variance and standard deviation of random variables; Binomial, Poisson and Normal distributions; Correlation and linear regression.

Section 8: Numerical Methods
Solution of systems of linear equations using LU decomposition, Gauss elimination method; Lagrange and Newton’s interpolations; Solution of polynomial and transcendental equations by Newton-Raphson method; Numerical integration by trapezoidal rule and Simpson’s rule; Numerical solutions of first order differential equations by explicit Euler’s method

GATE 2022 Online Form GATE XE  Syllabus Fluid Mechanics 

SECTION 1: Flow and Fluid Properties
Fluid Properties: Density, viscosity, surface tension, relationship between stress and strain-rate
for Newtonian fluids.
Classification of Flows: Viscous versus inviscid flows, incompressible versus compressible flows, internal versus external flows, steady versus unsteady flows, laminar versus turbulent flows, 1-D, 2-D and 3-D flows, Newtonian versus non-Newtonian fluid flow.
Hydrostatics: Buoyancy, manometry, forces on submerged bodies and its stability.
SECTION 2: Kinematics of Fluid Motion
Eulerian and Lagrangian descriptions of fluid motion. Concept of local, convective and material derivatives. Streamline, streakline, pathline and timeline.

SECTION 3: Integral Analysis for a Control Volume
Reynolds Transport Theorem (RTT) for conservation of mass, linear and angular momentum.
SECTION 4: Differential Analysis
Differential equations of mass and momentum for incompressible flows.
Inviscid flows – Euler equations and viscous flows – Navier-Stokes equations.
Concept of fluid rotation, vorticity, stream function and circulation.
Exact solutions of Navier-Stokes equations for Couette flow and Poiseuille flow, thin film flow.

SECTION 5: Dimensional Analysis
Concept of geometric, kinematic and dynamic similarity.
Buckingham Pi theorem and its applications.
Non-dimensional parameters and their physical significance – Reynolds number, Froude number and Mach number.
SECTION 6: Internal Flows
Fully developed pipe flow.
Empirical relations for laminar and turbulent flows: friction factor, Darcy-Weisbach relation and Moody’s chart.
Major and minor losses.

SECTION 7: Bernoulli’s Equation and its Applications, Potential Flows
Bernoulli’s equation: Assumptions and applications.
Flow measurements – Venturi meter, Pitot-static tube and orifice meter.

Elementary potential flows: Velocity potential function.
Uniform flow, source, sink and vortex, and their superposition for flow past simple geometries.
SECTION 8: External Flows
Prandtl boundary layer equations: Concept and assumptions.
Boundary layer characteristics: Boundary layer thickness, displacement thickness and momentum thickness.
Qualitative idea of boundary layer separation, streamlined and bluff bodies, and drag and lift forces.

GATE 2022 Online Form GATE Thermodynamics Syllabus

Section 1: Basic Concepts
Continuum and macroscopic approach; thermodynamic systems (closed and open); thermodynamic properties and equilibrium; state of a system, state postulate for simple compressible substances, state diagrams, paths and processes on state diagrams; concepts of heat and work, different modes of work; zeroth law of thermodynamics; concept of temperature.
Section 2: First Law of Thermodynamics
Concept of energy and various forms of energy; internal energy, enthalpy; specific heats; first
law applied to elementary processes, closed systems and control volumes, steady and unsteady flow analysis.

Section 3: Second Law of Thermodynamics
Limitations of the first law of thermodynamics, concepts of heat engines and heat pumps/refrigerators, Kelvin-Planck and Clausius statements and their equivalence; reversible and irreversible processes; Carnot cycle and Carnot principles/theorems; thermodynamic temperature scale; Clausius inequality and concept of entropy; microscopic interpretation of entropy, the principle of increase of entropy, T-s diagrams; second law analysis of control volume; availability and irreversibility; third law of thermodynamics.
Section 4: Properties of Pure Substances
Thermodynamic properties of pure substances in solid, liquid and vapor phases; P-v-T behaviour of simple compressible substances, phase rule, thermodynamic property tables and charts, ideal and real gases, ideal gas equation of state and van der Waals equation of state; law of corresponding states, compressibility factor and generalized compressibility chart.

Section 5: Thermodynamic Relations
T-ds relations, Helmholtz and Gibbs functions, Gibbs relations, Maxwell relations, Joule-Thomson coefficient, coefficient of volume expansion, adiabatic and isothermal compressibilities, Clapeyron and Clapeyron-Clausius equations.
Section 6: Thermodynamic Cycles
Carnot vapor cycle, ideal Rankine cycle, Rankine reheat cycle, air-standard Otto cycle, air-standard Diesel cycle, air-standard Brayton cycle, vapor-compression refrigeration cycle.
Section 7: Ideal Gas Mixtures
Dalton’s and Amagat’s laws, properties of ideal gas mixtures, air-water vapor mixtures and simple thermodynamic processes involving them; specific and relative humidities, dew point and
wet bulb temperature, adiabatic saturation temperature, psychrometric chart.

GATE humanities and social sciences syllabus(Reading Comprehension and Analysis)

Reading Comprehension – ability to understand complex language material in short paragraphs and answer questions regarding them.
• Expression – questions on stylistic and rhetorical aspects of a short passage including corrections or modifications of particular sentences.
• Analytical reasoning – ability to understand relationships in statements or short passages and being able to draw reasonable conclusions/inferences from them.
• Logical reasoning – Thinking critically to evaluate or to predict an argument, identify the main and supporting arguments, predict outcomes etc

GATE 2022 Online Form GATE XL Syllabus for Chemistry

Section 1: Atomic Structure and Periodicity
Planck’s quantum theory, wave particle duality, uncertainty principle, comparison between Bohr’s model and quantum mechanical model of hydrogen atom, electronic configuration of atoms and ions. Hund’s rule and Pauli’s exclusion principle.
Periodic table and periodic properties: ionization energy, electron affinity, electronegativity and atomic size.
Section 2: Structure and Bonding
Ionic and covalent bonding, MO and VB approaches for diatomic molecules, VSEPR theory and shape of molecules, hybridization, resonance, dipole moment, structure parameters such as bond length, bond angle and bond energy, hydrogen bonding and van der Waals interactions. Ionic solids, ionic radii and lattice energy (Born‐Haber cycle). HSAB principle.

Section 3: s, p and d Block Elements
Oxides, halides and hydrides of alkali, alkaline earth metals, B, Al, Si, N, P, and S. General characteristics of 3d elements. Coordination complexes: valence bond and crystal field theory, color, geometry, magnetic properties and isomerism.
Section 4: Chemical Equilibria
Osmotic pressure, elevation of boiling point and depression of freezing point, ionic equilibria in solution, solubility product, common ion effect, hydrolysis of salts, pH, buffer and their applications. Equilibrium constants (Kc, Kp and Kx) for homogeneous reactions.
Section 5: Electrochemistry
Conductance, Kohlrausch law, cell potentials, EMF, Nernst equation, thermodynamic aspects and their applications.

Section 6: Reaction Kinetics
Rate constant, order of reaction, molecularity, activation energy, zero, first and second order kinetics, catalysis and elementary enzyme reactions. Reversible and irreversible inhibition of enzymes.
Section 7: Thermodynamics
Qualitative treatment of state and path functions, First law, reversible and irreversible processes, internal energy, enthalpy, Kirchoff equation, heat of reaction, Hess’s law, heat of formation. Second law, entropy and free energy. Gibbs‐Helmholtz equation, free energy change and spontaneity, Free energy changes from equilibrium constant.
Section 8: Structure-Reactivity Correlations and Organic Reaction Mechanisms
Acids and bases, electronic and steric effects, Stereochemistry, optical and geometrical isomerism, tautomerism, conformers and concept of aromaticity. Elementary treatment of SN1,SN2, E1, E2 and radical reactions, Hoffmann/Saytzeff rules, addition reactions, Markownikoff rule and Kharasch effect. Elementary hydroboration reactions. Grignard’s reagents and their uses. Aromatic electrophilic substitutions, orientation effect as exemplified by various functional groups. Identification of common functional groups by chemical tests.

Section 9: Chemistry of Biomolecules
Amino acids, proteins, nucleic acids and nucleotides. Peptide sequencing by chemical and enzymatic proteolytic methods. DNA sequencing by chemical and enzymatic methods. Carbohydrates (upto hexoses only). Lipids (triglycerides only). Principles of biomolecule purification-Ion exchange and gel filtration chromatography. Identification of these biomolecules
And Beer-Lambert’s law.

GATE 2022 Online Form GATE Biochemistry

Section 1:
Organization of life; Importance of water; Structure and function of biomolecules: Amino acids, Carbohydrates, Lipids, Proteins and Nucleic acids; Protein structure, folding / misfolding and function; Myoglobin, Hemoglobin, Lysozyme, Ribonuclease A, Carboxypeptidase and Chymotrypsin.
Section 2:
Enzyme kinetics, regulation and inhibition; Vitamins and Coenzymes; Bioenergetics and metabolism; Generation and utilization of ATP; Metabolic pathways and their regulation: glycolysis, TCA cycle, pentose phosphate pathway, oxidative phosphorylation, gluconeogenesis, glycogen and fatty acid metabolism; Metabolism of Nitrogen containing compounds: nitrogen fixation, amino acids and nucleotides. Photosynthesis, Calvin cycle.

Section 3:
Biochemical separation techniques: ion exchange, size exclusion and affinity chromatography, centrifugation; Characterization of biomolecules by electrophoresis; DNA- protein and protein – protein interactions; UV-visible and fluorescence spectroscopy; Mass spectrometry.
Section 4:
Cell structure and organelles; Biological membranes; Action potential; Transport across membranes; Membrane assembly and Protein targeting; Signal transduction; Receptor-ligand interaction; Hormones and neurotransmitters.

Section 5:
DNA replication, transcription and translation; DNA damage and repair; Biochemical regulation of gene expression; Recombinant DNA technology and applications: PCR, site directed mutagenesis, DNA-microarray; Next generation sequencing; Gene silencing and editing.
Section 6:
Immune system: Innate and adaptive; Cell of the immune system; Active and passive immunity; Complement system; Antibody structure, function and diversity; B cell and T Cell receptors; B cell and T cell activation; Major histocompatibilty complex; Immunological techniques: Immunodiffusion, immune-electrophoresis, RIA and ELISA, flow cytometry; monoclonal antibodies and their applications

GATE 2022 Online Form GATE Botany Syllabus

Section 1: Plant Systematics
Botanical nomenclature, history of plant taxonomy, diversity and classification of plants, APG system of plant classification; phylogenetics and cladistics, molecular taxonomy and DNA barcoding; Centers for plant taxonomy and herbaria in India.
Section 2: Plant Anatomy
Anatomy of root, stem and leaves, floral organs, embryo and young seedlings, Primary and secondary meristems, stellar organization, vascular system and their ontogeny, xylem and phloem structure, secondary growth in plants and wood anatomy, plant cell structure and differences from animal cells.

Section 3: Plant development; cell and tissue morphogenesis
Life cycle of an angiosperm, development of male and female gametophyte; cell fate determination and tissue patterning; spacing mechanisms in trichomes and stomata. Embryogenesis, organization and function of shoot and root apical meristems. Transition to flowering: photoperiodism and vernalization, ABC model of floral organ patterning, pollen germination, double fertilization, seed development; Xylem and phloem cell differentiation, photomorphogenesis; phytochrome, cryptochrome, phototropin. Role of auxin, cytokinin, gibberellins, and brassinosteroids on plant development.

Section 4: Plant physiology and biochemistry
Plant water relations, mechanisms of uptake and transport of water, ions, solutes from soil to plants, apoplastic and symplastic transport mechanisms. Mechanism of stomatal movements, nitrogen metabolism, photosynthesis; C3, C4 and CAM cycles, photorespiration, respiration: glycolysis, TCA cycle and electron transport chain. Plant responses and mechanisms of abiotic stresses including drought, salinity, freezing and heat stress, metal toxicity; role of abscisic acid in abiotic stresses. Structure and function of biomolecules (proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acid), enzyme kinetics. Structure and biosynthesis of major plant secondary metabolites (alkaloids, terpenes, phenylpropanoids, flavonoids). Biosynthesis, mechanism of action and physiological effects of auxin, cytokinin, gibberellic acids, brassinosteroid, ethylene, strigolactone, abscisic acid, salicylic and jasmonic acid. Senescence and programmed cell death.

Section 5: Genetics and genomics
Cell cycle and cell division. Principles of Mendelian inheritance, linkage, recombination, genetic mapping; extra chromosomal inheritance; Introduction to epigenetics; gene silencing- transgene silencing, post transcriptional gene silencing, miRNA and siRNA; evolution and organization of eukaryotic genome structure, gene expression, gene mutation and repair, chromosomal aberrations (numerical: euploidy and aneuploidy and structural: deletion, duplication, inversion translocation), transposons. Model organisms for functional genetics and genomics; Introduction to transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics.
Section 6: Plant Breeding, Genetic Modification, Genome Editing
Principles, methods – selection, hybridization, heterosis; male sterility, genetic maps and molecular markers, embryo rescue, haploid and doubled haploids, plant tissue culture: micropropagation, embryo culture and in vitro regeneration, somatic embryogenesis, artificial seed, cryopreservation, somaclonal variation, somatic cell hybridization, marker-assisted selection, gene transfer methods viz. direct and vector-mediated, generation of transgenic plants; Introduction to genome editing: CRISPR/Cas9, Cre-Lox system to generate chimeras; plastid transformation; chemical mutagenesis

Section 7: Economic and applied Botany
A general account of economically and medicinally important plants- cereals, pulses, plants yielding fibers, timber, sugar, beverages, oils, rubber, pigments, dyes, gums, drugs and narcotics. Economic importance of algae, fungi, lichen and bacteria. Major Indian cash crops. Effect of industrialization on agricultural botany such as plastic on fiber economy. Genetically modified crops and its regulation eg. Bt cotton, Bt brinjal golden rice etc.
Section 8: Plant Pathology
Nature and classification of plant diseases, diseases of important crops caused by fungi, bacteria, nematodes and viruses, and their control measures (chemical and biological) mechanism(s) of pathogenesis, resistance: basal, systemic, induced systemic resistance, gene for gene concept. Molecular detection of pathogens; plant-microbe interactions: symbionts and mycorrhiza, pathogens and pests. Signaling pathways in plant defence response; salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) in plant-pathogen and plant-herbivore interaction, necrosis; host-parasitic plant interaction (such as Cuscuta).

Section 9: Ecology and Environment
Ecosystems – types, dynamics, degradation, biogeochemical cycles, ecological succession; food webs and energy flow through ecosystem; vegetation types of the world, Indian vegetation types and biogeographical zones, climate and flora endemism; pollution and global climate change, speciation and extinction, biodiversity and conservation strategies, ecological hotspots, afforestation, habitat restoration; plant interactions with other organisms; epiphytes, parasites and endophytes.

GATE 2022 Online Form GATE Zoology Syllabus

Section 1: Animal Diversity
Distribution, systematics and classification of animals, phylogenetic relationships (based on classical and molecular phylogenetic tools).
Section 2: Evolution
Origin and history of life on earth, theories of evolution, natural selection, adaptation, speciation.
Section 3: Genetics
Basic Principles of inheritance, molecular basis of heredity, sex determination and sex-linked characteristics, cytoplasmic inheritance, linkage, recombination and mapping of genes in eukaryotes, population genetics, genetic disorders, roles of model organisms in understanding
genetic principles.

Section 4: GATE zoology syllabus for -Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Nucleic acids, proteins, lipids and carbohydrates; replication, transcription and translation, Krebs
cycle, glycolysis, enzyme catalysis, hormones and their actions, roles of vitamins and minerals.
Section 5: Cell Biology
Basic principles of cellular microscopy, structure of cell, cytoskeletal organization, cellular organelles and their structure and function, cell cycle, cell division, chromosomes and chromatin structure.

Section 6: Gene expression in Eukaryotes
Eukaryotic genome organization and regulation of gene expression, transposable elements.
Section 7: Animal Anatomy and Physiology
Comparative physiology, the respiratory system, Muscular system, circulatory system, digestive system, the nervous system, the excretory system, the endocrine system, the reproductive system, the skeletal system.
Section 8: Parasitology and Immunology
Nature of parasite, host-parasite relation, protozoan and helminthic parasites, the immune response, cellular and humoral immune response.
Section 9: Development Biology
Gametogenesis, Embryonic development, cellular differentiation, organogenesis, metamorphosis, Model organisms used in developmental biology, genetic and molecular basis of development, stem cells.

Section 10: Ecology
The ecosystem, Animal distribution, ecological niche and its contribution to ecological diversity, the food chain, population dynamics, species diversity, zoogeography, biogeochemical cycles, conservation biology, ecotoxicology.
Section 11: Animal Behaviour
Type of behaviours, courtship, mating and territoriality, instinct, learning and memory, social behaviour across the animal taxa, communication, pheromones, evolution of behavior in animals.

GATE 2022 Online Form GATE Architecture syllabus –Click Here

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